1609 - Bermuda is first settled by survivors of the English Sea Venture en route to Virginia.
1794 - Maximilien Robespierre is executed by guillotine in Paris during the French Revolution.
1809 - Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera: Sir Arthur Wellesley's British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force under Joseph Bonaparte.
1821 - José de San Martín declares independence for Peru from Spain.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church: Confederate troops make a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia.
1868 - The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is passed, establishing African-American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law.
1896 - The city of Miami, Florida is incorporated.
1914 - World War I: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after Serbia rejects the conditions of an ultimatum sent by Austria on July 23 following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
1932 - U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the United States Army to forcibly evict the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.
1933 - Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Spain are established.
1942 - World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issues Order No. 227 in response to alarming German advances into Russia. Under the order all those who retreat or otherwise leave their positions without orders to do so will be immediately executed.
1943 - World War II: Operation Gomorrah: The British bomb Hamburg causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians.
1945 - A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.
1948 - The Metropolitan Police Flying Squad foils a bullion robbery in the "Battle of London Airport".
1955 - The Union Mundial pro Interlingua is founded at the first Interlingua congress in Tours, France.
1957 - Heavy rain and a mudslide in Isahaya, western Kyūshū, Japan, kill 992.
1958 - Lord Jellicoe makes his maiden speech in the House of Lords.
1965 - Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
1973 - Summer Jam at Watkins Glen: 600,000 people attend a rock festival at the Watkins Glen International Raceway.
1976 - The Tangshan earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 magnitude flattens Tangshan, the People's Republic of China, killing 242,769 and injuring 164,851.
1996 - Kennewick Man, the remains of a prehistoric man, is discovered near Kennewick, Washington.
1997 - Guatemala becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
2002 - Nine coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, are rescued after 77 hours underground.
2005 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army call an end to their thirty year long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.
2005 - A tornado touches down in a residential area in south Birmingham, England, causing £4,000,000 worth of damages and injuring 39 people.
2008 - The historic Grand Pier in Weston-super-Mare burns down for a second time in 80 years.