Famous birthdays, deaths and events of 1826
- January 27 - Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Russian writer (d. 1889)
- February 3 - Walter Bagehot, British essayist
- February 16 - Joseph Victor von Scheffel, German poet (d. 1886)
- March 23 - Léon Minkus, German/Czech composer and violinist (d. 1917)
- April 8 - Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (d. 1890)
- April 20 - Dinah Craik, English author (d. 1887)
- July 4 - Stephen Foster, American songwriter (d. 1864)
- August 6 - Thomas Alexander Browne, Australian writer (d. 1915)
- August 21 - Karl Gegenbaur, German anatomist (d. 1903)
- September 5 - John Wisden, England cricketer (d. 1884)
- November 13 - Charles Frederick Worth, English-born couturier (d. 1895)
- November 24 - Carlo Collodi, Italian author (d. 1890)
- January 17 - Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (b. 1806)
- March 29 - Johann Heinrich Voß, German poet (b. 1751)
- April 13 - Franz Danzi, German composer (b. 1763)
- June 1 - Jean Frédéric Oberlin, Alsatian pastor (b. 1740)
- June 3 - Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, Russian writer (b. 1766)
- June 5 - Carl Maria von Weber, German composer (b. 1786)
- July 4 - Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the United States, (b. 1743)
- January 24 - Mississippi College is founded in Clinton, becoming the first college in the state of Mississippi.
- January 30 - The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales is opened.
- February 11 - University College London is founded under the name University of London.
- February 24 - The signing of the Treaty of Yandaboo marks the end of the First Burmese War.
- April 1 - Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
- April 10 - The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Messolonghi start leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.
- May 22 - The HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage.
- June 21 - Maniots defeat Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha in the Battle of Vergas.
- October 7 - Granite Railway (first chartered railway in the U.S.) begins operations.
- November 25 - The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy.
- December 1 - French philhellene Fabvier forces his way through the Turkish cordon and ascends the Acropolis of Athens, which had been under siege.
- December 16 - Benjamin W. Edwards rides into Mexican controlled Nacogdoches, Texas and declares himself ruler of the Republic of Fredonia.