January 4 - The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Commonwealth by Royal Charter.
January 5 - The Prague Party Conference takes place.
January 6 - New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state.
January 8 - The African National Congress is founded.
January 11 - The Lawrence textile strike begins in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
January 17 - Sir Robert Falcon Scott (Scott of the Antarctic) reaches the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen.
January 23 - The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.
February 12 - The Republic of China adopts the Gregorian calendar.
February 14 - Arizona is admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
February 14 - In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned.
February 21 - Ioannina is incorporated into the Greek state after the Balkan Wars.
February 25 - Marie-Adélaïde, the eldest of six daughters of Guillaume IV, becomes the first reigning Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.
March 1 - Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.
March 5 - Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines.
March 7 - Roald Amundsen first announces to the world that his expedition has reached the South Pole, though they had arrived on December 14, 1911.
March 10 - Yuan Shikai is sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.
March 11 - Eleftherios Venizelos, leader of the Liberal Party, wins the Greek elections again.
March 12 - The Girl Guides (later renamed the Girl Scouts of the USA) are founded in the United States.
March 16 - Lawrence Oates, ill member of Scott's South Pole expedition leaves the tent saying, "I am just going outside and may be some time."
March 30 - Sultan Abdelhafid signs the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate.
April 1 - The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras breaks the world record -in standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
April 10 - The RMS Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
April 14 - The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic, and sinks the following morning with the loss of 1,503 lives.
April 15 - The British passenger liner, the RMS Titanic, sinks in the North Atlantic, after hitting an iceberg two and a half hours earlier, the previous day.
April 16 - Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel.
April 18 - The Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.
April 20 - Opening day for baseball stadiums Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan, and Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts.
April 22 - Pravda, the "voice" of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, begins publication in Saint Petersburg.
May 4 - Italy occupies the Greek island of Rhodes.
May 13 - The Royal Flying Corps (now the Royal Air Force) is established in the United Kingdom.
June 4 - Massachusetts becomes the first state of the United States to set a minimum wage.
June 6 - The eruption of Novarupta in Alaska begins. It is the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
June 8 - Carl Laemmle incorporates Universal Pictures.
June 30 - The Regina Cyclone hits Regina, Saskatchewan, killing 28. It remains Canada's deadliest tornado event.
July 19 - A meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kg explodes over the town of Holbrook in Navajo County, Arizona causing approximately 16,000 pieces of debris to rain down on the town.
August 5 - Japan's first taxicab service begins in Ginza, Tokyo.
August 6 - The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum.
August 14 - United States Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.
August 24 - Alaska becomes a United States territory.
August 25 - The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.
September 25 - Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York, New York.
October 7 - The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.
October 8 - First Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war against Turkey.
October 14 - While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, former president Theodore Roosevelt is shot by saloonkeeper John Schrank. With a fresh flesh wound and the bullet still in him, Roosevelt still delivers his scheduled speech.
October 17 - Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.
October 19 - Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
October 21 - During the First Balkan War, Kardzhali was liberated by Bulgarian forces
October 23 - First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
October 24 - First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo concludes with the Serbian victory.
October 26 - First Balkan War: The capital city of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, is unified with Greece on the feast day of its patron Saint Demetrius. On the same day, Serbian troops captured Skopje.
November 7 - The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven's Fidelio.
November 12 - The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
November 27 - Spain declares a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.
November 28 - Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
December 3 - Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month long First Balkan War.
December 3 - First Balkan War: The Naval Battle of Elli takes place.
December 8 - First Balkan War: The Greek army captures Korçë that had been under Ottoman rule.
December 19 - William H. Van Schaick, captain of the steamship General Slocum which caught fire and killed over 1,000 people, is pardoned by U.S. President William Howard Taft after three-and-a-half-years in Sing Sing prison.
December 28 - The first municipally owned streetcars take to the streets in San Francisco, California.